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Original title: Overview of the most complete fishing tools in history (detailed, large quantity, professional) Overview During drilling and completion and downhole operations, the drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing string are stuck or broken, the bit cone falls into the well, the logging instrument or cable is stuck, the cable wire rope is broken, the packer is stuck, sand settling, serious leakage, well collapse, blowout and other reasons lead to the interruption of normal drilling, workover and completion operations. It is necessary to use fishing tools or take special measures to remove leakage, collapse, sticking and spraying to restore normal operation. The operation and process of removing leakage, collapse, sticking and spraying are called "salvage". Practical experience tells us that salvage operations are inevitable. According to domestic statistics in the past, there may be one well for every five wells drilled, and four wells for every five wells repaired may need to be salvaged. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare common fishing tools and understand and master common fishing techniques. 1 Classification of fishing methods 1. According to the fishing string Soft fishing: steel wire (rope)/cable Hard fishing: tubing/drill pipe/coiled tubing Soft fishing: steel wire (rope)/cable Hard fishing: tubing/drill pipe/coiled tubing 2. According to the occlusion relationship Internal fishing: fishing spear/male awl/external hook External fishing: overshot/female cone/internal hook/fishing basket 2 Classification of fishing tools Internal fishing: fishing spear/male awl/external hook External fishing: overshot/female cone/internal hook/fishing basket 2 Classification of fishing tools External fishing: retractable overshot, female cone, internal hook, three-ball fishing device, etc. Internal fishing: male cone, retractable fishing spear, casing fishing spear, external hook, back-off, fishing spear. Others: Strong magnetic fishing device, reverse circulation strong magnetic fishing device, fishing cup, reverse circulation strong magnetic fishing basket, reverse circulation,Mining Drilling Equipment, ring fishing basket. 3 Expand the full text String fishing tool 1. Retractable slip overshot 1) Purpose: It is a special fishing tool for fishing drill collar, drill pipe, tubing and other columnar fish from outside in drilling and workover engineering. It is designed according to the outside diameter of drill collars, drill pipe, tubing, joints, couplings and other well pipes. When the fish is caught and can not be fished out, the fishing drum can be withdrawn from the fish and lifted back to the ground. In addition, the slip overshot can carry out high-pressure mud circulation after catching the fish. It is also provided with a milling shoe which can effectively repair the top of the fish and is convenient for the fish to enter the overshot smoothly. 2) Structure: Consists of an upper joint, a cylinder body and a guide shoe. It is composed of grappling slip, packing and milling shoe or control ring, as shown in the figure below. 6) "A" shaped packing It is a rubber short cylinder with a sealing lip inside, which is used for sealing between the outer diameter of the fish and the inner wall of the cylinder. It is used with spiral slips of various sizes and is installed on the upper part of the cylinder. Use the inclined plane at the lower end of the upper joint to compress it properly,DHD Drill bit, which is airtight. When using the basket slip, there is no obstacle to install the "A" packing. 7) "R" type packing It has a sealing lip on the inner surface and an outer surface bonded to the inner groove of the control ring, and is used with basket slips of various sizes. 8) Common accessories Enlarge the guide shoe: increase the fishing area Wall Hook: Used when the top of the fish is biased against the wall of the well. Extended short joint: used when the fishing position is too far from the top of the fish. Enlarge the guide shoe: increase the fishing area Wall Hook: Used when the top of the fish is biased against the wall of the well. Extended short joint: used when the fishing position is too far from the top of the fish. ► Fishing and withdrawal mechanism: The fishing parts of the overshot are spiral slips and basket slips. Because the wide serrated threads on the outside and the fishing teeth on the inside are left-handed threads, the clearance between them and the cylinder is large, so that the slips can expand and contract in a certain stroke in the cylinder. When the fish is introduced into the overshot, the slip goes up in the cylinder as long as an axial pressure is applied. Because of the axial pressure, the fish enters the slip, at this time, the slip goes up and expands, and its hard and sharp slip teeth are used to bite and clamp the fish by elastic force. When the upper bailing column is used, the slips move relatively downward in the barrel. Because the longitudinal section of the wide saw-tooth thread is a conical inclined plane, the slip must carry the heavy fish to move to the small end of the cone. At this time, the greater the weight of the fish, the tighter it is, and the whole weight is transmitted to the cylinder by the slip. The wide serrated thread of the cylinder and the internal and external threads of the slip are left-handed threads.
After the slip is matched with the cylinder body, the control card or the control ring also restrains its rotation, so when releasing the fish, as long as a certain pressure is applied and the fishing column is rotated clockwise, the fishing cylinder can be withdrawn from the fish. Because the catching tooth is a multi-head left-hand thread, the withdrawal speed is faster. 2. Retractable slip spear 1) Structure The spear is composed of mandrel, slip, release ring, cone, etc. Each type of spear is equipped with different sizes of slips for use in fishing. 2) Application It is a tool for fishing from the inner hole of the fish. It is mainly used to fish the sand control string, down the hole bit ,dth drill bits, tubing, sand control string, casing, etc. It can be used with the inner cutter, jar and other tools. If the fish is stuck and can not be lifted out, the spear can be withdrawn to pull out the drilling tool. 3) Salvage mechanism When the fishing spear is introduced into the fish, the pressure is applied, the slip enters the fish, the slip shrinks, and the outer teeth of the slip bite the fish tightly under the action of elasticity. The vertical section of the wide serrated thread is a conical inclined plane, and when the slip is lifted up, the slip moves to the big conical end, and the fish is clamped more tightly. 3. Fishing male cone The fishing male cone is a special tool for making thread and fishing from the inner hole of drill pipe, tubing and other falling objects with holes. It has a high fishing success rate for the falling objects of pipes with couplings. 1) Classification of male cones: Male taper of positive thread Male taper of positive thread and reverse thread Male taper of reverse thread Male taper of reverse thread Male taper of positive thread Male taper of positive thread and reverse thread Male taper of reverse thread Male taper of reverse thread 2) Judgment of positive and negative deduction: 1. Generally, there is a reverse buckle at the joint hoop. There are two marked grooves, and there is no positive buckle. 2. Observed from the thread : Observed from the female buckle end, the left high and right bottom are the positive buckles. Observing from the female buckle end, it is a reverse buckle when the left is low and the right is high. Observed from the male buckle end, the left high and the right bottom are reverse buckles. Observing from the male buckle end, the left low and the right high is the positive buckle. 3) Judgment method of positive and negative threads: By marking the slot, identifying the slot. Observed from the thread: the left high and right high from the root of the male cone are reverse threads; the left low and right high from the root of the male cone are positive threads. By marking the slot, identifying the slot. Observed from the thread: the left high and right high from the root of the male cone are reverse threads; the left low and right high from the root of the male cone are positive threads. 4. Mother cone The female cone is a special tool for making thread and fishing from the outer wall of tubular objects such as tubing and drill pipe. 1) Structure The female cone is a long cylindrical integral structure, consisting of a joint and a body with a fishing thread on the inner cone surface. The female cone is made of high-strength alloy steel forgings. In order to facilitate thread making, the fishing thread is provided with a cutting groove. 2) Salvage mechanism The female cone is forged from high strength alloy steel and is made by heat treatment. There are two types of fishing threads: saw-tooth thread and triangular thread. The surface hardness of the thread is HRC 60 ~ 65. The fishing mechanism of the female cone is to extrude the outer part of the fish head to make a buckle. 3) Classification of mother cone The female cone is divided into a positive female cone and a reverse female cone. 4 Fishing tools for falling objects 1. Fishing cup while drilling 1) Purpose The fishing cup is mainly used to fish out the heavy drilling cuttings or metal debris that cannot be carried out of the borehole by normal mud circulation during drilling. It plays an important role in keeping the bottom of the well clean, improving the service life of the bottom of the bit, and reducing and preventing accidental damage to the bit. 2) Structure The fishing cup is composed of a mandrel, a centralizer and a cup cylinder. There are three types of fishing cups with the same size: standard type (S type), long type (L type) and extra long type (ex type). 3) Working principle As that out diameter of the outer cylinder of the cup body of the salvage cup is relatively large, the annular gap between the salvage cup and a well hole is small, and the diameter of a bottom mandrel at the cup mouth is relatively small, the annular gap between the salvage cup and the well hole is large, therefore, the flow velocity of drill fluid at the cup mouth is sharply reduced to form a vortex, and the carrying capacity of the drilling fluid is greatly reduce, so that heavier fragments in the drilling fluid fall into the cup and are fished out along with tripping out, thereby achieving the. 2. Reverse circulation salvage basket The reverse circulation fishing basket is a fishing tool mainly used to fish small objects at the bottom of the well, such as bit cones, teeth, hand tools and scrap iron. It can cause local reverse circulation at the bottom of the well during fishing operation. 1. Structure 5 Milling tools 1. Grind shoes Grinding shoes are used to mill metal falling objects at the bottom of the well, trim the top of the fish, and sometimes to mill shorter drill collars and drill pipes.
1. Function of grinding shoes Trim, grind and mill the top of fish; grind the stuck buried pipes, rods and downhole tools, etc. It has obvious effect on fracture repair and grinding of casing damage wells. 2. Classification of grinding shoes Mill shoe cent is flat bottom mill shoe, concave bottom mill shoe, cone (pear form) mill shoe and guide collar eye mill shoe. 2. Milling shoes Milling shoe is a tool for washover operation and milling of underground objects. During the washover operation, it is used to drill and remove the rock blocks, sandstone, cement blocks and other accumulations around the downhole fish, and it can also be used to trim the top of the fish. The milling shoe is used for the annular milling, casing milling and flushing of the stuck and buried process string and downhole tools to remove the jamming, open the channel and create the necessary conditions for fishing. The types of milling shoes are: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M and N. 6 String cutting tools 1. Hydraulic cutter Hydraulic cutter is a tool that uses water horsepower to push the cutter to cut in the pipe. 1) Working principle When the cutter is lowered to the predetermined cutting position, the pump is started to circulate and the displacement is gradually increased. The drilling fluid passes through the nozzles of the upper and lower slide valves to generate a pressure difference between the upper and lower slide blocks. The pressure difference makes the lower slide valve move downward against the spring resistance to push the cutter head to rotate outward and enter the cutting state. At this time, the cutter can be rotated for cutting. After the fish is cut off, the pump is stopped, and the pressure difference between the upper and lower slide valves disappears. The lower slide valve moves upward to reset under the action of the compressed spring. The cutter head rotates inwards to reset under the action of the spring pressing piece. The cutter can be removed from the well. 2) Internal structure The hydraulic cutter is composed of an upper joint, a body and a lower joint. 6 Related AIDS 1. Lead mold (lead print) The lead seal is made by inserting soft lead into the lower end face of the alloy structural steel body, which is used for salvage operations. This structure can be lowered into the well bore to detect the shape of the top of the fish. 2. Safety joint The safety joint is a special tool assembled by two pieces, which is a special tool for protecting the drill string in drilling, workover, oil testing and other projects. It is suitable for downhole accident treatment, and also suitable for drill stem test of drilling and coring. It is connected to the required part of the used drill string to protect the drill string without affecting the normal operation of the drilling tool. Once the downhole tool is stuck, the drill string above the stuck point can be removed by means of the safety joint, and it can also be butted when drilling again. 200,dhd drill bit,000 | 300,000 | 400,000 A high-paying position as an engineer ↓↓ Click "Read the original article" to find a high-paying job. Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. wt-dthtools.com